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The Islamic World
The Islamic World

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - The situation in Madina

After the pilgrimage of 655 C.E. things remained quiet for some time. With the dawn of the year 656 C.E. Madina itself became a hot bed of intrigue and unrest. Muhammad b Abu Bakr, and 'Ammar b Yasir returned from Egypt to Madina. They were joined by 'Amr b Al 'Aas . They let loose a flood of propaganda, and vilified the administration of Egypt. It was given out that the administration of Egypt was guilty of tyranny and oppression. 'Amr b A1 'Aas took pains to project the view that under Abdullah b Sa'ad, the Governor of Egypt, the taxes were most oppressive, and while the she camel had been forced to give more milk its young ones had been starved. Muhammad b Abu Bakr had personal grievances against Uthman, and he condemned Uthman's Government for its inefficiency. 'Ammar b Yasir had at the outset supported the candidature of Ali for the caliphate, and he was a bitter critic of the administration of Uthman. It cannot be said why Uthman chose to send him to Egypt to inquire into the affairs of the province when it was known that he was prejudiced against the caliphate of Uthman. Perhaps Uthman considered that a report by a person who did not belong to his camp was likely to be more assuring 'Ammar b Yasir, however, did not submit any report. Instead in Egypt he joined with the malcontents, and carried on propaganda against Uthman. When 'Ammar returned to Madina he did not see Uthman. Instead he became active in creating unrest in Madina.

Marwan a cousin of Uthman acted as his Secretary. Another cousin of Uthman acted as the Superintendent of the markets in Madina. Uthman paid them for their services from the Baitul Mall This was made the subject of criticism. Uthman gave some gifts from the Baitul Mal to Zubair b Awwam and Talha b 'Ubaidah. It is not known what exactly was the occasion for the grant of such gifts but presumably such gifts were made because of their services. Criticism against Uthman took over a virulent form. People began to talk freely as to who would be the next Caliph. Many doggerals were composed supporting the candidature of Ali, Zubair and Talha as the next Caliph.


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