Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Reconquest of Fars under Uthman
Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Reconquest of Fars under UthmanDuring the caliphate of Uthman, the people of Fars revolted against the Muslim rule. No details about the revolt are available. Obviously the Persians wanted to throw off the yoke of the Muslims. Under Uthman, the process of the reconquest of Fars had to be taken up afresh.
The accounts of the campaigns that were undertaken to reclaim Fars available in the source books are too sketchy and brief. It appears that the revolt began at Persepolis. The Muslim garrison at Persepolis under the command of Abdullah b Ma'amar was outnumbered and could not cope with the situation. In the confrontation that took place between the Muslims and the Persians the Muslims suffered defeat and were driven away from Persepolis. Uthman directed Abdullah b 'Aamir the Governor General of Basra to take immediate steps to retrieve the situation. Abdullah b'Aamir marched at the head of a large force to Persepolis. The Persians closed the gates of the city. The Muslim force besieged the city, and took it by assault. The citizens surrendered and agreed to pay tribute.
From Persepolis, the Muslim forces advanced to Al j bard. Some feeble resistance was offered which was overcome and the city was captured by the Muslims. Peace was made on the usual terms of the Persians agreeing to pay tribute.
Thereafter the Muslim force advanced to Jor. The Persians gave battle but they were defeated and the city was captured by the Muslims. Peace was made on the usual term of the payment of Jizya.
While the main Muslim force was still at Jor, the people of Persepolis broke into revolt once again. They expelled the Muslim ruler from the city, and re-established the Persian rule. Abdullah b 'Aamir rushed from Jor to Persepolis. Persepolis had strong walls and the Persians shut themselves within the city. The Muslims besieged the city, and succeeded in demolishing the walls. The Persians were thus forced to come out of the city. A violent battle took place outside the city. In the hand to hand fight the Persians were no match for the Arabs. The Persian force suffered great slaughter, and they ultimately laid down arms. As the people of Persepolis had revolted repeatedly and no reliance could be placed on their promises very stringent teems were imposed this time. immense booty fell into the hands of the Muslims. All leaders among the Persians who were guilty of instigating the revolt were hunted out and executed.
With the fall of Persepolis, other cities in Fars also submitted unconditionally. Thus the Muslims once again became the masters of Fars. Uthman appointed Shareek b Aaor Harithi as the governor of Fars. Shareek restored law and order. He sent missionaries of Islam to various cities. Shareek's analysis of the situation was that the Persians had revolted for they still followed their old religion, and that the only way to peace was that the people should be converted to Islam, so that they were cut off from their old associations. As a result of the efforts of the Muslim missionaries conversions to Islam took place on a large scale. Under the orders of Uthman, mosques were built in the various cities of Fars, and these became the centers for the promotion of Islam.
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- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Abu Dhar Ghifari in Madinah
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Exile of Abu Dhar Ghifari
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Agitation Against Uthman: Abdullah b Masud
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Abdullah b Masud and Uthman
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Analysis of the Accounts
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- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Talha bin Ubaidullah
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Battle of the Camel
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- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Ummair and Kammil
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - 'Ammar bin Yaris
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - 'Ammar b Yasir during the caliphate of Uthman
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Campaign of Vilification Against Uthman
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Ibn Saba's Subversive Movement
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Allies For The Ibn Saba's Movement
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - 'Aamir bin Abdullah Tamimi in Basra and Syria
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - 'Aamir bin Abdullah Tamimi in Kufa and Madina
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - The political atmosphere in Madina
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Council of Governors
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Facing the Challange of the Seditionists
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Investigation into rumors
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Uthman's open letter to his people
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Uthman's address on the occasion of the Hajj
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Muawiyah's advice
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - The situation in Madina
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Ali's dialogue with Uthman
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Uthman's reaction to the address of Ali
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Uthman's address at the Prophet's mosque
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- Aisha Stacey
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- An introduction to the person of Abraham and the lofty position he holds in Judaism
- and Islam alike.
- Abraham destroys the idols of his people in order to prove to them the futility of their worship.
- Abraham’s dispute with a king
- and the command of God to migrate to Canaan.
- Some accounts of Abraham’s journey to Egypt
- the birth of Ishmael