Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab - Fustat
Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab - FustatWhen the Muslims conquered Egypt, Alexandria was the capital of the country. When the Muslims conquered Alexandria, most of the Byzantine population eacuated the city. The vacant houses were occupied by the Muslims. Alexandria was the queen of cities. Amr bin Al-Aas and the other Muslims with him were much attracted by the city. Amr wanted to make Alexandria the capital of Muslim Egypt.
Amr wrote to Umar seeking his permission to make Alexandria the capital of the province. Umar was of the view that Alexandria being a maritime city would not be suitable for the Arabs. He did not give the permission asked for. He suggested that the capital should be established further inland at a central place, where no mass of water intervened between it and Arabia.
Amr accordingly proceeded to choose a suitable site for the capital of Egypt. His choice fell on the site where he had pitched his tent at the time of the battle of Babylon. His tent had been fixed about a quarter of a mile north east of the fort. After the battle was over, and the army was to march to Alexandria when the men began to pull down the tent and pack it for the journey it was found that a dove had nested on top of the tent and fail eggs. Amr ordered that the tent should remain standing where it was. The army marched away but the tent remained standing in the plain of Babylon.
In this unusual episode of the dove and its nest, Amr saw a sign from the Heaven. He decided " Where the dove laid its nest, let the people build their city". As Amr's tent was to be the focal point of the city, the city was called Fustat, which in Arabic means the tent.
The first structure to be built was the mosque which later became famous as Mosque of Amr bin Al-Aas. The plot for the mosque was so chosen that the Mihrab and the pulpit came to be located on the exact spot where the tent had stood. The mosque was completed in 642 A.D. The mosque had a pulpit from where Amr as the leader addressed the congregation. Umar did not appreciate the idea of a pulpit. He wrote to Amr:
"It has come to my notice that you have built a pulpit by means of which you stand above the shoulders of the Muslims, which is the same as your standing with the Muslims under your heel. I command you to dismantle the pulpit."
Amr complied with the order.
Amr built a house for himself next to the gate of the mosque. Adjoining this house were the houses of Companions including Zubair, Ubaida, Abu Zar, Abu Ayub Ansari, Abdullah the son of Umar and Abdullah the son of Amr bin Al-Aas. Amr reserved a plot for the construction of a house for Umar. Umar wrote that he had no idea of residing in Egypt. Under his orders the plot was utilised for the construction of a market.
All houses were of one storey. No one was allowed to construct' a palatial building. Kharija bin Huzafa, however, constructed a two storeyed house. When this was brought to the notice of Umar, he wrote to Amr:
"It has come to my notice that Kharija bin Huzafa has built an upper storey. Perhaps Kharija wishes to see into the private apartments of his neighbours. When you get this letter demolish the upper storey".
The order was complied with.
The city of Fustat was built east of Babylon. In due course Fustat extended to include the old town of Babylon.
- Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab - Chronology
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Date of birth of Uthman
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - The family of Uthman
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Early life of Uthman
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Physical appearance of Uthman
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Personal character of Uthman
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Travels abroad
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Conversion to Islam
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Reaction to the conversion of Uthman
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Triumph of Uthman
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Marriage with Ruqayya
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Migration to Abyssinia
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Return to Makkah
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Ruqayya and Hafsa
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Umm Kulthum and Other Marriages of Uthman
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Migration to Madina and The world of Madina
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Generosity of Uthman
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Death of Ruqayya
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - The battle of Uhud
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Post-Uhud period
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Performance of the pilgrimage
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Khirash b Umayyah
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Baiy'at-ur-Ridwanl
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - The treaty of Hudaibiyah
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Extension of the Prophet's mosque
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Battle of Khyber
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Makkah revisited
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - End of the Hudaibiyah Pact
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Conquest of Makkah
- Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Battle of Autas
- Aisha Stacey
- Abraham invites his father Azar (Terah or Terakh in the Bible) and nation to the Truth revealed to him from his Lord.
- An introduction to the person of Abraham and the lofty position he holds in Judaism
- and Islam alike.
- Abraham destroys the idols of his people in order to prove to them the futility of their worship.
- Abraham’s dispute with a king
- and the command of God to migrate to Canaan.
- Some accounts of Abraham’s journey to Egypt
- the birth of Ishmael