Moses Proves Himself Right
The degree of the conflict expressed in this dialogue reached its apex; thus, the tone of dialogue changed. Moses used a convincing intellectual argument against Pharaoh. However, Pharaoh escaped from the circle of this dialogue based on logic and began a dialogue of another type, a type which Moses could not bear to follow: a dialogue of menacing and threatening. Pharaoh deliberately adopted the style of the absolute ruler. He asked Moses how he dared to worship Allah! Did he not know that Pharaoh was a god?
After declaring his divinity, Pharaoh asked Moses how he dared to worship another god. The punishment for this crime was imprisonment. It was not permitted for anyone to worship anyone other than Pharaoh.
Moses understood that the intellectual arguments did not succeed. The calm dialogue was converted from sarcasm to mentioning charity, then to scorn, then to the threat of imprisonment.
Moses said: "Even if I bring you something manifest (and convincing)." Pharaoh said: "Bring it forth then, if you are of the truthful!" So Moses threw his stick, and behold, it was a serpent, manifest. And he drew out his hand, and behold, it was white to all beholders! Surah 26: 30-33
Moses Defeats the Magicians
Pharaoh's amazement turned to terror. Fearing that his rule was in danger, he addressed his advisors: 'These are two wizards who will strip you of your best traditions and drive you out of the country with their magic. What do you advise?" They counseled Pharaoh to detain Moses and his brother while they summoned the cleverest magicians in the country. Then they too, could show their skills of magic and change sticks into serpents. In this way they sought to reduce the influence of Moses's miracles on the masses.
Pharaoh detained Moses and Aaron. He dispatched couriers all over the land to enlist the best magicians. He offered each successful magician a big reward, including appointment as a royal courtier.
On the customary festival day, which attracted citizens from all over the Egyptian empire, Pharaoh arranged for a public contest between Moses and the magicians. The people came in droves as never before when they heard of the greatest contest ever between Pharaoh's many magicians and a single man who claimed to be a prophet. They had also heard of a baby who had once floated down the river Nile in a basket, landed on Pharaoh's palace grounds, been reared as a prince, and who later had fled for killing an Egyptian with a single blow.
Everyone was eager and excited to watch this great contest. Before it began, Moses arose. There was a hush in the huge crowd. Moses addressed the magicians. "Woe unto you, if you invent a lie against Allah by calling His miracles magic and by not being honest with the Pharaoh. Woe unto you, if you do not know the difference between the truth and falsehood. Allah will destroy you with His punishment, for he who lies against Allah fails miserably."
Moses had spoken sincerely and made the magicians think. But they were overwhelmed by their greed for MONEY and glory. They hoped to impress the people with their magic and to expose Moses as a fraud and a cheat.
Moses asked the magicians to perform first. They threw their magical objects down on the ground. Their staffs and ropes took the forms of wriggling serpents while the crowd watched in amazement. Pharaoh and his men applauded loudly. Then Moses threw his staff. It began to wriggle vigorously and became an enormous serpent. The people stood up, craning their necks for a better view.
Pharaoh and his men sat silently as, one by one, Moses's huge serpent swallowed all the snakes. Moses bent to pick it up, and it became a staff in his hand.
The crowd rose like a great wave, shouting and screaming with excitement. A wonder like this had never been seen before! On witnessing the power of Moses, the magicians prostrated themselves to Allah, declaring: "We believe in the Lord of Moses and Aaron." Pharaoh was angry and began plotting his next move. He charged that the demonstration had been arranged secretly between Moses and the magicians. He demanded that the magicians confess to their scheme, threatening them with death. They refused to denounce Allah and stuck to the sincerity of their belief. No longer hiding his cruel nature, Pharaoh threatened to cut off their hands and feet and to crucify them on the trunks of palm trees as an example to his subjects.
Moses Defeats the Magicians - Qur'anic
Almighty Allah recounted this event: He (Pharaoh) said: "Have you come to drive us out of our land with your magic, 0 Moses? Then verily, we can produce magic the like thereof, so appoint a meeting between us and you, which neither we, nor you shall fail to keep, in an open wide place where both shall have a just and equal chance (and beholders could witness the competition)."
(Moses) said: "Your appointed meeting is the day of the festival, and let the people assemble when the sun has risen (forenoon)."
So Pharaoh withdrew, devised his plot and then came back.
Moses said to them: "Woe unto you! Invent not a lie against Allah, lest He should destroy you completely by a torment. And surely, he who invents a lie (against Allah) will fail miserably."
Then they debated with one another what they must do, and they kept their talk secret. They said: "Verily! These are two magicians. Their object is to drive you out from your land with magic, and overcome your chiefs and nobles. So devise your plot, and then assemble in line. And whoever overcomes this day will be indeed successful."
They said: "0 Moses! Either you throw first or we be the first to throw?"
(Moses) said: "Nay, throw you (first)!" Then behold, their ropes and their sticks, - by their magic, - appeared to him as though they moved fast. So Moses conceived a fear in himself.
We (Allah) said: "Fear not! Surely, you will have the upper hand. And throw that which is in your right hand! It will swallow up that which they have made. That which they have made is only a magician's trick, and the magician will never be successful, no matter whatever amount (of skill) he may attain."
So the magicians fell down prostrate. They said: "We believe in the Lord of Aaron and Moses."
(Pharaoh) said: "Believe you in him (Moses) before I give you permission? Verily! He is your chief who taught you magic. So I will surely cut off your hands and feet on opposite sides, and I will surely crucify you on the trunks of palm-trees, and you shall surely know which of us I (Pharaoh) or the Lord of Moses (Allah) can give the severe and more lasting torment."
They said: "We prefer you not over the clear signs that have come to us, and to Him (Allah) Who created us. So decree (regarding) this life of the world. Verily! We have believed in our Lord, that He may forgive us our faults, and the magic to which you did compel us. And Allah is better as regards reward in comparison to your (Pharaoh's) reward, and more lasting (as regards punishment in comparison to your punishment)." Surah 20: 58-73
Allah's Description of Believers and Non-Believers
Verily! Whoever comes to his Lord as a Mujrim (criminal, polytheist, disbeliever in the Oneness of Allah and His Messengers, sinner, etc.), then surely, for him is Hell, therein he will neither die nor live.
But whoever comes to Him (Allah) as a believer (in the Oneness of Allah, etc.), and has done righteous good deeds, for such are the high ranks (in the Hereafter), - Everlasting Gardens (Adn Paradise), under which rivers flow, wherein they will abide forever: such is the reward of those who purify themselves by abstaining from all kinds of sins and evil deeds which Allah has forbidden and by doing all that which Allah has ordained. Surah 20: 74-76
The People's Non-Reaction to the defeat of the magicians
The magicians represented the elite of the Egyptian society. They were its scholars. They prostrated before righteousness, but the people abandoned them and left them to their fate. The path of righteousness was plain, but in spite of this, the people did nothing but stand by and watch.
If every one of the Egyptians had stooped to pick up a piece of brick and had thrown it at Pharaoh, he would have fallen dead and the history of Egypt would have been changed.
This obviously did not happen. None of the people moved. Each one stood motionless in his place. The people did nothing but watch, and they paid the price for this inactivity: they were drowned later as the price for their cowardice of one day.
The Pharaoh's Reaction to Moses's Victory
Moses and Aaron left, and Pharaoh returned to his palace. Pharaoh was completely stupefied when he faced the two miracles. When Moses went out of his presence, his emotions changed from amazement and fear to violent rage. He quarreled with his ministers and men, reviled them bitterly for no reason, and commanded them to get out of his presence. When he was left alone, he tried to think more calmly. He drank several cups of wine, but his anger did not abate.
Then he summoned all the ministers, leaders, and responsible men for a serious meeting. Pharaoh entered the meeting with a rigid face. It was obvious that he would never surrender easily. He had established a kingdom on the basis of his being a god worshipped by the Egyptian people. Now Moses came to destroy what he had built. Moses said that there was no Lord other than Allah in existence. This meant that Pharaoh was a liar.
Pharaoh opened the session by throwing a sudden question at Haman: "Am I a liar, 0 Haman?"
Haman fell to his knees in amazement and asked: "Who dared to accuse Pharaoh of lying?"
Pharaoh said: "Has he (Moses) not said that there is a Lord in the heaven?"
Haman answered: "Moses is lying."
Turning his face to the other side, Pharaoh asserted impatiently: "I know he is a liar." Then he looked towards Haman (and cried): "0 Haman! Build me a tower that I may arrive at the ways, - the ways of the heavens, and I may look upon the Ilah (God) of Moses but verily, I think him to be a liar."
Thus it was made fair-seeming, in Pharaoh's eyes, the evil of his deeds, and he was hindered from the (Right) Path, and the plot of Pharaoh led to nothing but loss and destruction (for him). Surah 40: 36-37
Pharaoh issued his royal command to erect a lofty tower, its height to reach the heavens. Pharaoh's command depended fundamentally upon Egyptian civilization and its fondness for building what Pharaoh wanted. However, he ignored the rules of engineering. In spite of this, Haman assented (hypocritically), knowing that it was impossible to erect such a tower. He said that he would issue a command to build it immediately. "However, your majesty, let me object to Pharaoh for the first time. You will never find anyone in the heavens. There is no god but you."
Pharaoh listened to a settled fact. Then he declared in the famous meeting his historic line: "0 chiefs! I know not that you have an ilah (a god) other than me." Surah 28: 38