The Islamic World

The Islamic World

The Islamic World

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - The political atmosphere in Madina

'Aamir b Abdullah Tamimi in pressing the demand for the abdication of Uthman had advanced no arguments. Uthman had turned down the demand for cogent reasons. Nevertheless these altercations poisoned the political atmosphere in Madina. Barring a few persons who espoused the cause of Uthman strongly, the other companions were either critical or preferred to remain indifferent.

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Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - 'Aamir bin Abdullah Tamimi in Basra and Syria

'Aamir b Abdullah in Basra'
'Aamir b Abdullah Tamimi was an eminent Muslim. He settled at Basra. He was intensely religious, and would pray the whole night. Being too much absorbed in religious devotions, he was cut off from the world around him. He became critical of the irreligious ways of life of the people around him, and the people felt unhappy at his biting criticism. The Governor of Basra complained against him to Uthman, and Uthman directed that 'Aamir b Abdullah be sent to Syria.

'Aamir b Abdullah in Syria
In Syria, Abdullah Tamimi was lodged in the main mosque at Damascus, and Muawiyah the Governor of Syria kept a watch over him. One of the complaints against 'Aamir was that he did not eat meat. One day Muawiyah invited 'Aamir to dinner at which meat was served. 'Aamir duly partook of the dish of meat. That convinced Muawiyah that this allegation against 'Aamir was false.

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Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Governors of Uthman

The Governors were appointed by the Caliph. Every appointment was made in writing. At the time of appointment an instrument of instructions was issued with a view to regulating the conduct of Governors. On assuming office, the Governor was required to assemble the people in the main mosque, and read the instrument of instructions before them.

One of the main allegations against Uthman was that he had appointed his relatives as Governors. Another allegation was that he exercised little check over the Governors.

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Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Muawiyah's advice

On return to Madina, Muawiyah saw Uthman. He said that although on the occasion of the Hajj the seditionist had not been able to declare any grievance, that did not mean the end of their opposition. He feared that they would resort to other means to harm Uthman.

Muawiyah suggested that Uthman should accompany him to Syria. He said that the people of Syria were devoted to the Caliphate and the Caliph would have an atmosphere of peace there. Uthman said that as the Caliph of the Holy Prophet, he could not leave the city of the Holy Prophet.

Muawiyah observed that in the alternative he should be allowed to send some Syrian force to keep a guard on the Caliph. Uthman said that the presence of the Syrian force in Madina would be an incitement to a civil war, and he could not be a party to such a move.

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Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab - Wives And Children Of Umar

Before his conversion to Islam, Umar had three wives. These were:

(1) Zainab bint Mazaun Jamiah;

(2) Malaika bint Jarul Khuzai; and

(3) Qariba bint Umayya Makhzumi.

When Umar was converted to Islam, Zainab alone accepted Islam. After the Hudaybiah pact when God sent the words that Muslims should not marry idolatresses, Umar divorced Malaika and Qariba.

After the Hudaybiah-pact the first Muslim woman who fled from the Quraish and sought shelter with the Muslims was Sabiha bint Al-Haris. Her husband did not accept Islam. When the Quraish came to demand the restoration of Sabiha, the Holy Prophet refused to return her saying that the condition in the pact applied to men only and not to women. The Holy Prophet had Sabiha married to Umar.

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Khalifa Abu Bakr - Battle of Buzakha

Battle of Buzakha. When the Muslim army reached Buzakha, they were confronted by the forces of the apostate tribes. In spite of some defections, the forces of the confederate tribes were considerable in strength, and outnumbered the Muslim force. Khalid called upon Taleaha to submit to Islam, but he ridiculed the offer. Thereupon the two armies clashed. The Muslim forces were commanded by Khalid, while the forces of Taleaha were commanded by 'Uyaynah, the chief of Bani Fazara. The two armies were well matched, and the outcome of the battle seemed uncertain.

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Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab - Battle Of Uhud

The battle of Uhud was an extension of the battle of Badr.

The Quraish of Mecca came with a force of 3,000 men to avenge the defeat of Badr. The Muslims could muster a force of 1000 persons only, and out of these three hundred persons under Abdullah bin Ubbay a hypocrite withdrew at the last moment thus leaving only 700 persons to face the hostile Quraish.

The Holy Prophet arranged his force in battle array and posted a small contingent of archers to guard a vulnerable passage in the rear. The archers were instructed that they were not to leave their positions at any cost unless otherwise directed by the Holy Prophet.

With the Quraish was a contingent of women. They beat drums and sang songs to excite their men to action. They sang:

"We are the daughters of the morning star;

We tread on carpets;

If you advance we embrace you;

If you turn back we leave you."

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Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Ali's dialogue with Uthman

When the crisis deepened, Ali saw Uthman and talked to him in diplomatic terms. He said:

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Prophet Isa (Jesus) - Allah Sends the Disciples a Feast

Allah Sends the Disciples a Feast
Jesus continued calling people to Almighty Allah and laying down for them what might be called "the law of the Spirit." Once when standing on a mountain surrounded by his disciples, Jesus saw that those who believed in him were from among the poor, the wretched, and the downtrodden, and their number was small.

Some of the miracles which Jesus performed had been requested by his disciples, such as their wish for a "holy table" to be sent down from heaven.

Allah the Exalted said: (Remember) when the disciples said: "0 Jesus, son of Mary! Can your Lord send down to us a table spread (with food) from heaven?" Jesus said: "Fear Allah, if you are indeed believers." They said: "We wish to eat thereof and to be stronger in Faith, and to know that you have indeed told us the truth and that we ourselves be its witnesses."

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Khalifa Abu Bakr - Battle of Badr

The battle of Badr. In 624 C.E. the Quraish of Makkah mustered a strong force, and decided to give the Muslims a battle with a view to crushing them. When the Holy Prophet came to know of the intentions of the Quraish he held a council of war at Madina. At this council, Abu Bakr was the first to rise and make an offer to sacrifice his life in the defense of Islam. The Muslims could muster a force of 313 men only to fight against the Quraish. With this meager force the Holy Prophet marched from Madina to Badr, some eighty miles away

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Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab - Kufa, Basra And Mosul

In Iraq the Persians had their capital at Al-Madain. Al-Madain was situated across the Euphrates and the Tigris and was situated on the eastern bank of the Tigris. After the occupation of Al-Madain, the city served as the provincial capital for the Muslims. The climate of the city was damp, malarious and unhealthy for the Arabs used to the dry climate of the desert. When the Muslim officers from al-Madain waited on Umar at Madina he was struck by the fact that such persons by residence in Al-Madain had lost in health. Umar looked into the causes for the decline in the health of the people and he came to the conclusion that that was due to the unhealthy climate of Al-Madain. Hadart Umar accordingly desired that another city should be founded as the capital of Iraq. His instructions were:

(1) Only that site would suit the Arabs as would suit their camels. The new site should be such where the climate is dry.

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Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Campaigns Against Nubia

The first invasion of Nubia
In 641 C.E. during the caliphate of Umar when 'Amr b Al 'Aas was the Governor of Egypt, an expedition under Uqba b Nafe' was undertaken against Nubia. The Nubians were very mobile, and as such no regular battle was fought. The operations consisted of skirmishes, haphazard engagements and hit-and-run raids. The Nubians were expert archers, and they caused considerable havoc among the ranks of the Muslims. Most of the Muslim soldiers lost their eyes. The war proved inconclusive, and the Muslim forces were Pulled out of Nubia without achieving any result.

Second invasion of Nubia

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