The Islamic World

The Islamic World

The Islamic World

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Agitation Against Uthman: Abdullah b Masud

Early Life
Abdullah b Masud was an eminent companion of the Holy Prophet. He was among the early converts to Islam. He migrated to Abyssinia and was supported there by Uthman. On return from Abyssinia he migrated to Madinah. He entered into brotherhood with Muadh b Jabal of the Ansars. He participated in all the campaigns undertaken by the Holy Prophet. On the occasion of the battle of Badr, he had the distinction of cutting off the head of Abu Jahl the arch enemy of Islam. In Madinah he became an attendant of the Holy Prophet. Whenever the Holy Prophet came to the mosque Abdullah b Masud held his shoes. On Fridays' Abdullah b Masud while reading the Holy Prophet to the pulpit carried his scepter in front of him.

After the death of the Holy Prophet

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Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab - Battle Of Fahl

After the Byzantines had lost Damascus, the emperor Heraclius planned a large scale action against the Muslims. His strategy was to cut off the Muslim forces in Syria from communication with Arabia. With this object, he ordered a large concentration of the Byzantine force at Beisan to the west of the Jordan river to the south of Damascus.

The Muslims had only a small garrison at Fahl to the east of Jordan at some distance from Beisan. When Abu Ubaida came to know of the concentration of the Byzantine force at Beisan, he held a council of war. The concensus of opinion was that all the forces that the Muslims could muster should march to Fahl, and meet the Byzantine force before it could gather further strength. Abu Ubaida left a corps under the command of Yazeed at Damascus, and the rest of the Muslim forces marched to Fahl.

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Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab - Battle Of Khyber

After having been driven away from Madina, the Jews settled at Khyber. The Jews were a cunning and crafty people, and they involved themselves in intrigues against the Muslims.

The pact of Hud aibiya brought truce with the Quraish for a period of ten years. Tnis meant that the Quraish could no longer openly aid the Jews against the Muslims. In spite of this situation, there was no diminution in the hostility of the Jews against the Muslims, and they began to work for the formation of an another coalition against the Muslims.

To forestall the evil designs of the Jews, the Holy Prophet marched to Khyber in 629 A.D. with a force of 1,400 Muslims. The Jews shut themselves in their forts. Some of these forts were very formidable with frowning walls built of the living rock.

The Jews had ample provisions, and there was no shortage of arms with them. They were offered to accept Islam, but they spurned the offer. Thereupon the Holy Prophet ordered an offensive against the Jews.

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The Story of Moses: The Ten Commandments

They left under the cover of darkness, carrying their meagre possessions headed across the desert towards the Red Sea. When they reached the sea, the Pharaoh’s army was pursuing them closely, the people of Moses could see the dust stirred up by the approaching army. They looked at the sea in front of them and felt trapped. By the will and permission of God, Moses struck the sea with his staff and the sea parted revealing a pathway. The Children of Israel walked across the seabed. When the last person had safely crossed, the sea fell back into place and drowned the army of Egypt including the tyrannical Pharaoh.

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The Story of Moses: Trust in God

There are lessons for humankind throughout the story of Moses, which are not only learnt after his prophethood; rather, they are found even when he was a newborn. His righteous mother’s behavior gives us numerous lessons that are relevant even today. Put your trust in God!

Moses was born in a year in which the sons of the Children of Israel were put to death the moment they were born. Imagine the sense of fear that permeated every aspect of life under such conditions. Pregnancy was not an event to be celebrated and cherished but a source of fear and insecurity.

Security guards roamed the streets and invaded homes searching for pregnant women, therefore Moses’ mother concealed her pregnancy. Imagine the conditions under which she gave birth: fearful, silent, possibly shrouded in darkness. Was she surrounded by women or alone? Did her husband hold her hand praying that she did not cry out revealing herself to the neighbours or guards?

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Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham) - Abraham Discovers Allah

Abraham's Hatred for Idols
Years passed and Abraham grew. Since his childhood his heart had been full of hatred for these idols. He could not understand how a sane person could make a statue and then worship what he had made. He noticed that these idols did not eat, drink, or talk, and that they could not even turn themselves right-side-up if someone turned them up-side down. How, then, could people believe that such statues could harm or benefit them?
Abraham's people had a big temple full of idols, in the middle of which was a niche accommodating the biggest gods which were of different kinds, qualities, and shapes. Abraham, who used to go to the temple with his father when he was a child, greatly despised all that wood and stone. What surprised him was the way his people behaved when they entered the temple: they bowed and started to cry, begging and imploring their gods for help as if the idols could hear or understand these requests!

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Prophet Muhammad (Muhammad) - The Hypocrites

The Hypocrites
The party of the Ansars, or Helpers, included some lukewarm converts who retained an ill-concealed predilection for idolatry. These were headed by Abdullah Ibn Ubai, a man with some claims to distinction. They ostensibly joined Islam, but in secret were disaffected. They often were a source of considerable danger to the newborn commonwealth and required unceasing watchfulness on the part of the Prophet. Towards them he always showed the greatest patience and forbearance, hoping in the end to win them over to the faith, which expectations were fully justified by the result. With the death of 'Abdullah Ibn Ubai, his party which were known as the party of the "Munafiqeen" (the Hypocrites) disappeared.

The Jews Present a Problem

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Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - The Battle of Merv

The Battle of Merv
Yazdjurd crossed the Oxus and sought refuge with the Khaqan of Farghana. After the death of Umar, the Persians revolted against the Muslims and a greater part of Persia was lost to the Muslims. Availing of this opportunity, Yazdjurd with the help of a Turkish force reoccupied Merv.

Conspiracy against Yazdjurd

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The Story of Noah: Page 1

He was Noah Ibn Lamik, Ibn Mitoshilkh, Ibn Enoch, Ibn Yard, Ibn Mahlabeel, Ibn Qinan, Ibn Anoush, Ibn Seth, Ibn Adam the Father of Mankind (PBUH).

According to the history of the People of the Book, (refers to the Jews, and Christians, so called by Allah because they received Revealed Books, Taurat, Zabur and Injeel. These names are translated 'Torah, Psalms, and Gospels' respectively, but the books that are extent are corrupt. Of the Revealed Books, ONLY the Quran remains exactly as it was revealed).

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Khalifa Abu Bakr - Expedition to Tabuk

Financing the expedition to Tabuk. In 630 C.E., after return from Makkah the Holy Prophet decided to lead an expedition to Tabuk on the Syrian border. In order to finance the expedition the Holy Prophet invited contributions and donations from his followers. Othman provided ten thousand camels. Umar made a liberal contribution When the Holy Prophet asked him what he had left for himself and his family he said that he had given one half of his wealth for the cause of Allah, and had left one half for himself and his family. Then Abu Bakr came loaded with his contribution and the Holy Prophet put him the same question as to what had he left for himself and his family. Abu Bakr said, "I have brought all that I had. I have left Allah and His Prophet for myself and my family." This episode has formed the theme of one of the poems of Allama Iqbal. The last verse of the poem reads: "For the moth the lamp; for the nightingale the flower, For Siddiq God and His Prophet alone suffice."

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Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Revolt in Khurasan

On the death of Umar, like the rest of Persia, Khurasan also revolted and broke away from the authority of the Muslims. Yazdjurd the Persian emperor made Merv his head quarters, and once again made preparations to measure swords with the Muslims and drive them out of Persia. Before Yazdjurd could lead the Persian forces against the Muslims, Yazdjurd fell a victim to the treachery and disloyalty of his own people, and he was killed in 651 C.F.

Reconquest of Khurasan
On the death of Yazdjurd, Uthman directed Abdullah bin 'Aamir the Governor General of Basra to undertake campaigns for the reconquest of Khurasan. Abdullah b 'Aamir took the field in person and marched at the head of a large force to Khurasan.

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The Story of Abraham: Introduction

One of the prophets given the most attention in the Quran is the prophet Abraham. The Quran tells of him and his unwavering belief in God, first calling him to reject his people and their idolatry, and later to prove true to various tests which God places before him.

In Islam, Abraham is seen as a strict monotheist who calls his people to the worship of God alone. For this belief, he bears great hardships, even disassociating himself with his family and people through migration to various lands. He is one who fulfills various commandments of God though which he is tested, proving true to each one.

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Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Campaign of Vilification Against Uthman

International situation
During the caliphate of Umar, the Muslim dominions had expanded considerably both in the east and the west. Umar was a strong man, but Uthman who succeeded him was known for his kindheartedness. The foreign powers felt that with Uthman as the Caliph, it would be possible for them to wrest the territories from the Muslims which they had conquered during the caliphate of Umar. In pursuance of this program to overthrow the Muslim rule, Persia rose in revolt in the east, and the Byzantines attacked Egypt in the west to drive away the Muslims.

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Khalifa Abu Bakr - Abu Bakr and Finhas the Jew

The Jews of Madina. In Madina there was a considerable number of Jews They were wealthy, controlled the trade, and commanded great influence. The Holy Prophet followed the policy of 'live and let live'. He accordingly entered into a treaty with the Jews. According to the terms of the treaty the Jews were to enjoy religious freedom and there was to be no interference in religious affairs. The Muslims and the Jews were to be on friendly terms, and were to help each other in the promotion of objects of mutual interest. It was stipulated that Muslims and the Jews would help each other in case of an attack by an enemy. No party was to give protection to the Quraish, and in case the Quraish invaded Madina, both the Muslims and the Jews were to join hands in the defense of the city.

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Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - The Khyber

Even after expulsion, the Jews did not stop intriguing against the Muslims. After the Hudaibiya pact with the Quraish, the Jews of Khyber entered into conspiracy with some of the tribes to attack Madina. The Holy Prophet anticipated the move of the Jews and marched with a force to Khyber. The Jews were overpowered.

The apostasy campaigns
In the apostasy campaigns the Jews secretly aided the apostates, and incited the tribes who had accepted Islam to apostatize. The designs of the Jews were frustrated, and the apostasy campaigns ended in victory for the Muslims. Then under Abu Bakr and Umar the Muslims embarked on a campaign of conquests. Within a short time the Muslims were masters of Iraq, Persia, Syria and Egypt. That alarmed the Jews. The Jews were now no longer in the position to come in direct confrontation with the Muslims. They therefore changed their strategy, and instead of a direct attack on Islam they resorted to a campaign for the subversion of Islam from within.

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