Organization at the battlefield
On the battlefield the army operated in six wings, namely: Qalb, the center Maqadamah, the vanguard Maunanah, the right wing Alaisarah, the left wing Saqah, the rear Rid, extreme rear.
Other components of the army were: Talaych or patrols who kept watch over the movements of the enemy; Ra 'id or foraging parties; Rukban or the camel corps Farsan or the cavalry; Ralil or the infantry Ramat or the archers.
Catapults were used for siege operations.
Dabbabah was a wooden tower which moved on wheels and consisted of several stories. It was used for siege operations.
Walls were Pierced by stone throwers and wall piercers.
Reporting and espionage
Reporters were attached to every unit who kept the Caliph fully informed about the military operation. There was a separate department for espionage, who procured intelligence about the movements and activities of the enemy.
General review of military operations