Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab - Post Hudaibia-Pact Developments

Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab - Post Hudaibia-Pact Developments

In the wake of the Hudaibiya pact there took place developments which affected Umar personally.

At the time of Hudaibiya pact it was undertaken that if any person from the Quraish accepted Islam such a person was to be returned to the Quraish. Some men from among the Quraish accepted Islam and sought shelter with the Muslims. In accordance with the terms of the pact these persons were returned to the Quraish.

Later a crisis developed when some Quraish women accepted Islam against the wishes of their parents and husbands and sought refuge with the Muslims. The Quraish wanted such women to be returned to them. The Holy Prophet refused to return such women to the Quraish as in the meantime God had revealed:

"Believers, when believing women came to you as refugees, examine them. Allah knows the state of their faith. If you find them to be true believers do not return them to the unbelievers. They are not lawful to the unbelievers, nor are the unbelievers lawful to them You shall, however, give to their former husbands what they have spent on them. And you will be doing nothing unlawful after you have given them dowries." 60: 10

Another verse on the same subject provided:

"Do not marry idolatresses until they embrace the faith.

And do not marry your women to idolators."

Umar had three wives, namely:

(1) Zainab bint Mazaun Jamiah;

(2) Malaika bint Jarul Khuzai; and

(3) Qariba bint Abi Umayya Makhzumi.

Out of these three, only Zainab bint Mazaun had accepted Islam and migrated to Madina. The other two ladies did not accept Islam and did not choose to migrate. After the Hudaibiya pact, Umar divorced Malaika as well as Qariba. After being divorced by Umar, Malaika married Abu Jahm bin Hazifa while Qariba married Abdur Rahman son of Abu Bakr who was still an infidel.

After the Hudabiya pact the first Muslim woman who fled from the Quraish and sought refuge with the Muslims was Sabiha bint al-Haris. Her husband did not accept Islam. When the Quraish came to demand the restoration of Sabiha, the Holy Prophet refused to return her to the Quraish saying that the condition in the pact applied to men only and not to women. The Holy Prophet had Sabiha married to Umar.

In Madina, Umar married an Ansar lady Asiah bint Sabat Ansari. On marriage Umar changed her name to Jamila. Umar resided with her at Quba. It is reported that for some years she was Umar's favorite wife. A few years later, Umar divorced her and shifted to Madina. The reason why Umar divorced her is not known.