Organization at the battlefield
On the battlefield the army operated in six wings, namely: Qalb, the center Maqadamah, the vanguard Maunanah, the right wing Alaisarah, the left wing Saqah, the rear Rid, extreme rear.
Other components of the army were: Talaych or patrols who kept watch over the movements of the enemy; Ra 'id or foraging parties; Rukban or the camel corps Farsan or the cavalry; Ralil or the infantry Ramat or the archers.
Catapults were used for siege operations.
Dabbabah was a wooden tower which moved on wheels and consisted of several stories. It was used for siege operations.
Walls were Pierced by stone throwers and wall piercers.
Reporting and espionage
Reporters were attached to every unit who kept the Caliph fully informed about the military operation. There was a separate department for espionage, who procured intelligence about the movements and activities of the enemy.
General review of military operations
In the time of Uthman, the military organization set up under Umar was duly maintained. The Governor of each province acted as the com. mender of the forces. The Caliph acted as the Commander-in-Chief, and he directed the military activity under Umar, and extensive conquests
were made during the period. During the time of Uthman, most of Persia, Azarbauan, and Armenia revolted and these areas had to be reconquerd. Further conquests were made. In the north the Oxus was crossed, and a greater part of Transoxiana was occupied. In the east the frontiers were pushed up to India. In the west the whole of North Africa was conquered. From North Africa the Muslims crossed over to Spain and occupied a part thereof. In the Mediterranean the islands of Cypress and Rhodes were conquered during the reign of Uthman. Under Uthman the Muslims became a naval power for the first time. They
undertook some fifty military operations against the Byzantines. In the war against the Byzantines many forts were captured in Asia Minor. A campaign was undertaken against Constantinople itself, but it had to be abandoned because of the disturbed state of home politics.
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