Khalifa Abu Bakr - Fulfillment of History
Khalifa Abu Bakr - Fulfillment of HistoryEconomic causes. In his book The History of Syria, Professor P. K. Hitti has expressed the following views with regard to the economic causes about the success of the Muslims in Iraq and Syria: viewed in its proper perspective the Islamic expansion was one in a series of migration waves carrying a surplus population from a barren peninsula to a border fertile region with a more abundant life. It was in fact the last stage in the age long process of infitration which had begun with the Babylonians some four thousand years before the Islamic movement. The Islamic movement, however, did possess one distinctive feature-the religious impulse. Combined with the economic factor this made the movement irresistible and carried it far beyond the confines of any preceding one. Islam admittedly provided a battle cry, a slogan comparable to that provided by democracy as a cohesive agency cementing tribes and heterogeneous masses never united before. But while the desire to spread the new faith or to go to paradise may have been the motivating force in the lives of some of the Bedouin warrior, the desire for the comforts and luxuries of settled life in the fertile Crescent was the driving force in the case of many of them."
The analysis of Professor Hitti is at the most partially correct. In the context of the events that led to campaigns in Iraq and Syria, there is nothing to show that such campaigns were undertaken because of any economic considerations. As a matter of fact economic considerations were a consequence and not a cause of the wars in Iraq and Syria.
Religious and moral causes. About the religious cause, Will Durant observes as follows in his book The Age of Faith: "The Muslim leaders were passionate disciples of Muhammad; prayed even more than they fought, and in time inspired with a fanaticism that accepted death in a holy war as an open sesame to paradise."
About the moral factors, Will Durant observes as follows in his aforesaid book: "Christian ethics and monasticism had reduced in the Near East that readiness for war which characterized Arab custom and Muslim teaching The Arab troops were more rigorously disciplined and more ably led; they were used to hardships and could fight on empty stomachs."
In their World History, Flenley and Welch have observed that new religion Islam provided the necessary unity, leadership and driving force for the Arabian expansion. They also hold that the Arabs were brave and determined fighters, and were more mobile than the Persians or the Byzantines.
Whether Islam was spread through sword. Some western writers have taken pains to build up the thesis that Islam was spread at the point of sword. It is preposterous to hold that the Muslims won in Iraq and Syria because of their military strength. In the matter of military power and material resources the Arabs could never be a match for the empires of Byzantium and Syria with sophisticated military power and great economic resources. Under these circumstances there was no question of a great power asserting its faith backed by military strength. Islam was on the other hand a revolt against power; a militarily weak people contended against mightier people, and surprisingly enough they won. In the conquered territories the Muslims did not insist on the people becoming Muslims. They were allowed to follow their religion subject to the payment of 'Jizya'. As such there is absolutely no weight in the argument that Islam was at any stage spread through sword.
Fulfillment of history. Whatever the causes that led to the success of the Muslims when they emerged on the international horizon, so much is certain that the astounding success of the Muslim forces in Iraq and Syria reads very much like a tale from the Arabian Nights. Truth is said to be stranger then fiction, and it was certainly so in the case of the Muslim conquests of Iraq and Syria. It appears that the Muslims were merely an instrument for the fulfillment of history. Iraq and Syria fell to the Muslims just as a ripe apple would fall to the ground under the law of gravitation. It is an undeniable fact that by overpowering the empires of Persia and Byzantium, Abu Bakr changed the course of history. The story of Abu Bakr is the story of faith that moved mountains.
- Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab - Purdah For Women
- Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab - Expedition To Turbah
- Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab - Battle Of Khyber
- Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab - The Conquest Of Mecca
- Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab - Battle Of Hunain And Taif
- Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab - Expedition To Tabuk
- Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab - Rumour Of Divorce By The Holy Prophet
- Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab - The Funeral Of Abdullah Bin Ubayy
- Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab - When Gabriel Appeared In The Shape Of A Man
- Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab - Tidings Of Paradise
- Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab - The Farewell Pilgrimage
- Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab - Passing Away Of The Holy Prophet
- Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab - Election Of Abu Bakr As The First Caliph
- Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab - Installation Of Abu Bakr As The Caliph
- Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab - Usamah's Expedition To Syria
- Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab - Defence Of Madina
- Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab - Umar And Khalid Bin Walid
- Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab - Umar As Adviser
- Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab - Abu Bakr And Umar
- Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab - Nomination Of Umar As The Caliph
- Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab - Umar's Inaugural Address
- Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab - Umar's Address About His Conduct
- Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab - Amirul Muminin
- Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab - Umar's Allowance
- Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab - Expulsion Of Jews And Christians From Arabia
- Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab - Tarawih
- Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab - Umar And The Holy Quran
- Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab - Umar And Mosques
- Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab - The Hijri Calendar
- Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab - Umar And Drinking
- Aisha Stacey
- Abraham invites his father Azar (Terah or Terakh in the Bible) and nation to the Truth revealed to him from his Lord.
- An introduction to the person of Abraham and the lofty position he holds in Judaism
- and Islam alike.
- Abraham destroys the idols of his people in order to prove to them the futility of their worship.
- Abraham’s dispute with a king
- and the command of God to migrate to Canaan.
- Some accounts of Abraham’s journey to Egypt
- the birth of Ishmael