Khalifa Abu Bakr - Campaign in Hadramaut
Khalifa Abu Bakr - Campaign in HadramautThe revolt of the Kinda. Early in 633 C.E. the Kinda in Hadramaut broke into revolt. The people of the Kinda tribe did not apostatize, but something went wrong with the way they were handled. The Muslim Governor of Hadramaut was Ziyad bin Lubeid, and his headquarter was at Zafar. On of the Kinda chiefs offered a camel as Zakat. Later he found that the animal that he had offered in Zakat belonged to his brother. He approached the Governor with the request that the animal that he had offered in Zakat should be returned to him, and he would offer another camel instead. Ziyad the Governor rejected the request, and that led to trouble. The chieftain thereupon sent some persons to steal the camel in question. Ziyad had the camel lifters arrested. A riotous assembly of the Kinda people demanded the return of the arrested persons. Ziyad refused, and on such refusal the situation exploded.
Large sections of the Kinda revolted. In protest they apostatized from Islam and refused to pay any taxes. In defiance of the Muslim authority they took up arms. Ziyad sent a column against the rebels. There was a confrontation at Riyad not far from Zafar. Here the apostates were defeated and many were captured. As the captives were being taken to Zafar, they passed through a settlement which belonged to Ash'as bin Qais, a Kinda chief. Ash'as was a typical Arab chief, a man of considerable charm and wit, and of a colorful personality. The captives appealed to Ash as for his help. They cried "O Ash'as, we are of your clan and we invoke your help." Ash'as by that time had not apostatized, but his tribal loyalty proved stronger than his faith. With his men, Ash'as intercepted the Muslim column, and liberated the captives. When Ziyad took notice of this breach of faith on the part of Ash'as, Asha's revolted and apostatized. The rebel Kinda flocked to the standard of Ash'as, and prepared for battle.
Campaign in Hadramaut. Ziyad wrote to the Caliph Abu Bakr for reinforcement. Abu Bakr directed Muhajir to march from Yemen to Hadramaut to the relief of the administration in Hadhramaut. Muhajir marched with his force to Hadramaut. There was a battle in late January 633 C E. in which Ash'as was defeated, though the defeat was not decisive. Ash'as withdrew his army from the battlefield and shut himself in the fort of Nujeir. Here other dissident tribes joined him. The Muslims besieged the fort of Nujeir. To strengthen the Muslims, 'Ikramah also marched with a column from Yemen to Hadramaut. The Muslims thereafter pressed the siege, and some time in February 633 C.E., Ash'as opened negotiations with Muhajir and 'Ikramah. Ash'as agreed to surrender if the lives of ten persons and their families were spared. The Muslims accepted the proposal and Ash'as was asked to write the names of the persons for whom he wanted amnesty. Ash'as went to his people, and prepared the document containing the names of the persons who were to be granted amnesty. It was his intention to write the names of other ten persons, and thereafter write his own name as the tenth. He did not notice that one man Jahdam stood over his head reading the names. As Ash'as was going to write his own name as the tenth person Jahdam drew his dagger saying "Write my name, or I will kill you." Overawed, Ash'as wrote the name of Jahdam as the tenth person, and the list of ten persons having been completed was handed over to Muhajir who had it sealed. In pursuance of the pact, Ash'as laid down arms and opened the gates of the fort. The Muslim forces thereafter entered the fort. Ash'as had not taken the garrison with him into his confidence. The garrison, therefore, opposed the Muslims. The apostates suffered from terrible slaughter, and the few who were left laid down their arms. All the men were taken captive. The Kindas now realized that Ash'as had betrayed them. As the captive men and women of the Kinds were led past Ash'as, they looked at him reproachfully and said "You traitor."
- Khalifa Abu Bakr - Khalid's March to Syria
- Khalifa Abu Bakr - Battle of Busra
- Khalifa Abu Bakr - Siege of Damascus
- Khalifa Abu Bakr - Battle of Ajnadein
- Khalifa Abu Bakr - The Muslim Victory
- Khalifa Abu Bakr - Byzantine Garrison
- Khalifa Abu Bakr - Political Organization
- Khalifa Abu Bakr - Social Organization
- Khalifa Abu Bakr - Economic Organization
- Khalifa Abu Bakr - Military Organization Under Abu Bakr
- Khalifa Abu Bakr - The Mushaf
- Khalifa Abu Bakr - Abu Bakr and the Hadith
- Khalifa Abu Bakr - Sufic Thought of Abu Bakr
- Khalifa Abu Bakr - Abu Bakr and Tasawwuf
- Khalifa Abu Bakr - Origin of Fiqh
- Khalifa Abu Bakr - Abu Bakr and Fiqh
- Khalifa Abu Bakr - Poetry in the Time of Abu Bakr
- Khalifa Abu Bakr - Anecdotes of Abu Bakr 1
- Khalifa Abu Bakr - Anecdotes of Abu Bakr 2
- Khalifa Abu Bakr - Anecdotes of Abu Bakr 3
- Khalifa Abu Bakr - Sayings of Abu Bakr
- Khalifa Abu Bakr - Sermons of Abu Bakr
- Khalifa Abu Bakr - Abu Bakr and the Interpretation of Dreams
- Khalifa Abu Bakr - Illness of Abu Bakr
- Khalifa Abu Bakr - Passing away of Abu Bakr
- Khalifa Abu Bakr - Appointment of Umar as his Successor
- Khalifa Abu Bakr - Counsel to Umar
- Khalifa Abu Bakr - Wishes and Regrets of Abu Bakr Elegy on the Death of Abu Bakr
- Khalifa Abu Bakr - Things which he did not do, and wished that he should have done them
- Khalifa Abu Bakr - Ali's Oration on the Death of Abu Bakr
- Aisha Stacey
- Abraham invites his father Azar (Terah or Terakh in the Bible) and nation to the Truth revealed to him from his Lord.
- An introduction to the person of Abraham and the lofty position he holds in Judaism
- and Islam alike.
- Abraham destroys the idols of his people in order to prove to them the futility of their worship.
- Abraham’s dispute with a king
- and the command of God to migrate to Canaan.
- Some accounts of Abraham’s journey to Egypt
- the birth of Ishmael