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The Islamic World
The Islamic World


Mart 9th, 2015

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Azarbaijan during the caliphate of Uthman

When Othrnan became the Caliph, Utba b Farqad was the Governor of Azarbaijan. Uthman made no change, and Utba b Farqad continued as the Governor of Azarbaijan. For military purposes Azarbaijan was included in the command of Kufa. When Walid b Uqba became the Governor General of Kufa he recalled Uqba b Farqad from Azarbaijan. With the withdrawal of Uqba b Farqad the people of Azarbaijan once again broke into revolt. Thus in the caliphate of Uthman the process of the conquest of Azarbaijan had to be taken up all over again.

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - First conquest of Azarbaijan

Azarbaijan lay to the west of the Caspian Sea. 1ne region was so called because of the large number of its fire temples.

During the caliphate of Umar when the Muslims overpowered Persia, as column of the Muslim force under Hudhaifa b Alyaman invaded Azarbaijan. The Muslim force marched to Jurjan, where the local garrison surrendered after some resistance.

From Jurjan the Muslim force advanced to Ardbeei the capital of the province. The citizens did not choose to fight. They surrendered and agreed to pay the usual "Jizya".

Thereafter the Muslim force marched northward along the western coast of the Caspian Sea. In a confrontation at Bab, a port on the Caspian Sea, the Persians were defeated and the town was captured by the Muslims.

After some time on the transfer of Hudhaifa, the people of Azarbaijan revolted, and they met some initial success As a consequence, the Muslims had to abandon the advanced posts in Azarbaijan.

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Reconquest of Tabaristan under Uthman

During the caliphate of Uthman the people of Tabaristan like the people of the other provinces of Persia revolted against the authority of the Muslim rule. Uthman directed Sa'ad b 'Aas the Governor General of Kufa to suppress the revolt. Sa'ad b Al 'Aas led a strong force of 80,000 warriors to Tabaristan under his personal command. The force included such eminent persons as Abdullah b Abbas; Abdullah b Umar; Abdullah b Zubair; and Abdullah b Umar b Al 'Aas .

The Muslim force advanced in the first instance to Qumas. The Persians at Qumas were not in a position to fight against such a large Muslim force. They surrendered, and peace was made subject to their payment of an annual tribute. From Qumas the Muslims advanced to Jurjan. The Persian garrison offered some resistance but finding such resistance useless surrendered. A tribute of 20 lakh dirhams was imposed on the people and peace was made.

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Conquest of Tabaristan under Umar

The province of Tabaristan in Persia lay to the south of the Caspian Sea. The province was so named because almost every citizen carried with him an axe-Tabar.

Tabaristan was conquered by the Muslims during the caliphate of Umar. After the conquest of Rayy, the Muslim commander Nuaim b Muqarrin sent an expedition to Tabaristan under the command of his brother Suwaid b Muqarrin. Suwaid proceeded to the city of Qumas in the first instance. The people of Qumas did not choose to fight. On the approach of the Muslims, they opened the gates of their city, and submitted to the Muslim rule on the usual terms. From Qumas tile Muslim forces proceeded to Jurjan. It was an important town on the main highway to Merv. The Persian garrison under the command of Rozban offered feeble resistance which was soon overcome by the Muslims. The citizens surrendered and accepted submission to the Muslim rule on the usual terms.

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Campaigns in Seestan: Abdur Rahman b Sumra

As a consequence of the Persian revolt, the process of the conquest of Seestan had to be repeated. This time after obtaining the approval of Uthman, Abdullah b 'Aamir appointed Abdur Rahman b Sumra to command the Muslim forces in the invasion of Seestan. Abdur Rahman b Sumra led the Muslim forces to Seestan and after crossing the frontier and overcoming resistance in the border towns advanced to Zaranj. The old story of siege, blockade and surrender was repeated. Abdur Rahman b Sumra made peace on the Persians undertaking to pay an annual tribute of 2 crore dirhams. The Persians also presented one lakh slaves.

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Conquest of Seestan

Seestan the eastern province of Persia, and the home of the legendary hero Rustam of Shahnama fame was conquered by the Muslim forces sent to Seestan. The Muslim advance had been obstructed by the Persian forces at the frontier. After a violent fight the Persian forces had been repulsed. The Muslims had thereafter advanced to Zaranj the capital of the province which fell after a prolonged siege. Thereafter the Muslims suppressed all opposition, and became the masters of the entire province.

Reconquest of Seestan

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Reconquest of Fars under Uthman

During the caliphate of Uthman, the people of Fars revolted against the Muslim rule. No details about the revolt are available. Obviously the Persians wanted to throw off the yoke of the Muslims. Under Uthman, the process of the reconquest of Fars had to be taken up afresh.

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Conquest of Fars under Umar

The province of Fars in Persia was conquered by the Muslims during the caliphate of Umar.

A column of the Muslim army led by Mujashe b Masud advanced in the district of Ardsheer Khurra. A confrontation between the Muslim and the Persian forces took place at Tawwaj. The Persians resisted the Muslim advance but they suffered defeat, and they agreed to pay tribute. From Tawwaj the Muslim forces proceeded to the town of Sabur. The Persians shut themselves within the city and closed the gates. The Muslims besieged the town. The siege did not last long for the Persians laid down their arms and sued for peace. Peace was made on the payment of tribute.

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Campaigns in Asia Minor

After the reconquest of Armenia., the Muslim army undertook campaigns in Asia Minor. The Byzantines evacuated all forts between Antioch and Tarsus, and these forts were occupied by the Muslims. Under Uthman, the frontier with the Byzantines came to be extended up to the Tarsus.

In the meantime the Muslims had conquered the islands of Cypress and Rhodes. with the naval bases at Rhodes and Cypress, and the military bases at Tarsus the Muslims made raids into the Byzantine territory every year. Full details about such raids are not available but it is clear that these raids had much of nuisance value, and precluded the Byzantines from taking the offensive.

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Campaigns in Armenia

After defeating the Byzantines, the Muslim army penetrated into Armenia. During the time of Umar a multi pronged attack had been made of Armenia. A column under Bukair b Abd had attacked Bab. Shahrbaz the ruler of Bab had surrendered and peace was negotiated on the usual terms of paying 'Jizya'. Another column under Habib b Maslama conquered Tiflis Another column under Hudhaifa overpowered the Al Lan mountainous area. Another column under Abdur Rahmarr'b Rabeah reduced Baida.

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - The Byzantine attack on Syria

When after the death of Umar, Uthman came to power, the Byzantines made a bid to reconquer what they had lost to the Muslims during the caliphate of Umar. The Byzantines made a multi pronged attack on the Muslim dominions. One attack was made on Alexandria in Egypt, another attack was planned on Syria. The Byzantines mustered a strong force of 80,000 men, and planned a whole sale invasion of Syria. Amir Muawiyah the Governor of Syria had an army of 10,000 soldiers with him. He accordingly requested for aid from Uthman. Uthman asked Walid b Uqba the Governor of Kufa to send a contingent to the aid of Syria. A contingent from Kufa was sent to Syria under the command of Salman b Rabia.

Mart 7th

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Conquest of the Island of Cypress: Abdullah b Qais

After the conquest of Cypress, Abdullah b Qais the commander of the Muslim naval forces continued his cruise in the Mediterranean Sea. He is accredited with having fought fifty naval battles in all of which he was victorious. In all these battles not a single Muslim was killed or drowned. The details of these battles have not been preserved in history. Presumably most of these naval actions took place along the coast of Asia Minor. Because of these victories the exploits of Abdullah b Qais came to acquire the character of a legend. As a result of his victories he won great booties. He was known for making large bounties. Even the enemy profited from his charities.

He was a terror for the naval forces of the enemy, but on account of his beneficent activities he enjoyed popularity among the common men even in the enemy territory.

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Conquest of Cypress

When Uthman became the Caliph, Amir Muawiyah reported his proposal to undertake a naval expedition and conquer Cypress. Muawiyah advanced detailed arguments in favor of his proposal. Uthman agreed to the proposal, but laid down the condition that only such persons should participate in the naval expedition who volunteered themselves, and no person should be forced to join the expedition against his will.

Muawiyah fitted a strong naval fleet under the command of Abdullah b Qais. Another fleet was sent by Abdullah b Abi Sarah from Egypt. Muawiyah raised a force of volunteers. Among other persons, the volunteers included eminent companions like Abu Dhar Ghifari, Ubadah b Samit, his wife Umm Haraam, Abu Darda and Shaddad b Aus.

The Muslim force landed on Cypress in 649 C.E. There was only a small Byzantine garrison on the island which was overpowered without any difficulty. The islanders submitted to the Muslims, and agreed to pay a tribute of 7,000 dinars per year.